1. Convert Raw Disk Image To Dmg File

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QEMU supports many disk image formats, including growable disk images(their size increase as non empty sectors are written), compressed andencrypted disk images.

Quick start for disk image creation¶

You can create a disk image with the command:

where myimage.img is the disk image filename and mysize is its size inkilobytes. You can add an M suffix to give the size in megabytes anda G suffix for gigabytes.

See the qemu-img invocation documentation for more information.

Snapshot mode¶

If you use the option -snapshot, all disk images are considered asread only. When sectors in written, they are written in a temporary filecreated in /tmp. You can however force the write back to the rawdisk images by using the commit monitor command (or C-a s in theserial console).

VM snapshots¶

VM snapshots are snapshots of the complete virtual machine including CPUstate, RAM, device state and the content of all the writable disks. Inorder to use VM snapshots, you must have at least one non removable andwritable block device using the qcow2 disk image format. Normallythis device is the first virtual hard drive.

Use the monitor command savevm to create a new VM snapshot orreplace an existing one. A human readable name can be assigned to eachsnapshot in addition to its numerical ID.

Use loadvm to restore a VM snapshot and delvm to remove a VMsnapshot. infosnapshots lists the available snapshots with theirassociated information:

A VM snapshot is made of a VM state info (its size is shown ininfosnapshots) and a snapshot of every writable disk image. The VMstate info is stored in the first qcow2 non removable and writableblock device. The disk image snapshots are stored in every disk image.The size of a snapshot in a disk image is difficult to evaluate and isnot shown by infosnapshots because the associated disk sectors areshared among all the snapshots to save disk space (otherwise eachsnapshot would need a full copy of all the disk images).

When using the (unrelated) -snapshot option(Snapshot mode),you can always make VM snapshots, but they are deleted as soon as youexit QEMU.

VM snapshots currently have the following known limitations:

  • They cannot cope with removable devices if they are removed orinserted after a snapshot is done.
  • A few device drivers still have incomplete snapshot support so theirstate is not saved or restored properly (in particular USB).

Disk image file formats¶

QEMU supports many image file formats that can be used with VMs as well as withany of the tools (like qemu-img). This includes the preferred formatsraw and qcow2 as well as formats that are supported for compatibility witholder QEMU versions or other hypervisors.

Depending on the image format, different options can be passed toqemu-imgcreate and qemu-imgconvert using the -o option.This section describes each format and the options that are supported for it.

raw

Raw disk image format. This format has the advantage ofbeing simple and easily exportable to all other emulators. If yourfile system supports holes (for example in ext2 or ext3 onLinux or NTFS on Windows), then only the written sectors will reservespace. Use qemu-imginfo to know the real size used by theimage or ls-ls on Unix/Linux.

Supported options:

preallocation

Preallocation mode (allowed values: off, falloc,full). falloc mode preallocates space for image bycalling posix_fallocate(). full mode preallocates spacefor image by writing data to underlying storage. This data may ormay not be zero, depending on the storage location.

qcow2

QEMU image format, the most versatile format. Use it to have smallerimages (useful if your filesystem does not supports holes, for exampleon Windows), zlib based compression and support of multiple VMsnapshots.

Supported options:

compat

Determines the qcow2 version to use. compat=0.10 uses thetraditional image format that can be read by any QEMU since 0.10.compat=1.1 enables image format extensions that only QEMU 1.1 andnewer understand (this is the default). Amongst others, this includeszero clusters, which allow efficient copy-on-read for sparse images.

backing_file

File name of a base image (see create subcommand)

backing_fmt

Image format of the base image

encryption

This option is deprecated and equivalent to encrypt.format=aes

encrypt.format

If this is set to luks, it requests that the qcow2 payload (notqcow2 header) be encrypted using the LUKS format. The passphrase touse to unlock the LUKS key slot is given by the encrypt.key-secretparameter. LUKS encryption parameters can be tuned with the otherencrypt.* parameters.

If this is set to aes, the image is encrypted with 128-bit AES-CBC.The encryption key is given by the encrypt.key-secret parameter.This encryption format is considered to be flawed by modern cryptographystandards, suffering from a number of design problems:

  • The AES-CBC cipher is used with predictable initialization vectors basedon the sector number. This makes it vulnerable to chosen plaintext attackswhich can reveal the existence of encrypted data.
  • The user passphrase is directly used as the encryption key. A poorlychosen or short passphrase will compromise the security of the encryption.
  • In the event of the passphrase being compromised there is no way tochange the passphrase to protect data in any qcow images. The files mustbe cloned, using a different encryption passphrase in the new file. Theoriginal file must then be securely erased using a program like shred,though even this is ineffective with many modern storage technologies.

The use of this is no longer supported in system emulators. Support onlyremains in the command line utilities, for the purposes of data liberationand interoperability with old versions of QEMU. The luks formatshould be used instead.

encrypt.key-secret

Provides the ID of a secret object that contains the passphrase(encrypt.format=luks) or encryption key (encrypt.format=aes).

encrypt.cipher-alg

Name of the cipher algorithm and key length. Currently defaultsto aes-256. Only used when encrypt.format=luks.

encrypt.cipher-mode

Name of the encryption mode to use. Currently defaults to xts.Only used when encrypt.format=luks.

encrypt.ivgen-alg

Name of the initialization vector generator algorithm. Currently defaultsto plain64. Only used when encrypt.format=luks.

encrypt.ivgen-hash-alg

Name of the hash algorithm to use with the initialization vector generator(if required). Defaults to sha256. Only used when encrypt.format=luks.

encrypt.hash-alg

Name of the hash algorithm to use for PBKDF algorithmDefaults to sha256. Only used when encrypt.format=luks.

encrypt.iter-time

Amount of time, in milliseconds, to use for PBKDF algorithm per key slot.Defaults to 2000. Only used when encrypt.format=luks.

cluster_size

Changes the qcow2 cluster size (must be between 512 and 2M). Smaller clustersizes can improve the image file size whereas larger cluster sizes generallyprovide better performance.

preallocation

Preallocation mode (allowed values: off, metadata, falloc,full). An image with preallocated metadata is initially larger but canimprove performance when the image needs to grow. falloc and fullpreallocations are like the same options of raw format, but sets upmetadata also.

lazy_refcounts

If this option is set to on, reference count updates are postponed withthe goal of avoiding metadata I/O and improving performance. This isparticularly interesting with cache=writethrough which doesn’t batchmetadata updates. The tradeoff is that after a host crash, the reference counttables must be rebuilt, i.e. on the next open an (automatic) qemu-imgcheck-rall is required, which may take some time.

This option can only be enabled if compat=1.1 is specified.

nocow

If this option is set to on, it will turn off COW of the file. It’s onlyvalid on btrfs, no effect on other file systems.

Btrfs has low performance when hosting a VM image file, even morewhen the guest on the VM also using btrfs as file system. Turning offCOW is a way to mitigate this bad performance. Generally there are twoways to turn off COW on btrfs:

  • Disable it by mounting with nodatacow, then all newly created fileswill be NOCOW.
  • For an empty file, add the NOCOW file attribute. That’s what thisoption does.

Note: this option is only valid to new or empty files. If there isan existing file which is COW and has data blocks already, it couldn’tbe changed to NOCOW by setting nocow=on. One can issue lsattrfilename to check if the NOCOW flag is set or not (Capital ‘C’ isNOCOW flag).

qed

Old QEMU image format with support for backing files and compact image files(when your filesystem or transport medium does not support holes).

When converting QED images to qcow2, you might want to consider using thelazy_refcounts=on option to get a more QED-like behaviour.

Supported options:

backing_file

File name of a base image (see create subcommand).

backing_fmt

Image file format of backing file (optional). Useful if the format cannot beautodetected because it has no header, like some vhd/vpc files.

cluster_size

Changes the cluster size (must be power-of-2 between 4K and 64K). Smallercluster sizes can improve the image file size whereas larger cluster sizesgenerally provide better performance.

table_size

Changes the number of clusters per L1/L2 table (must bepower-of-2 between 1 and 16). There is normally no need tochange this value but this option can between used forperformance benchmarking.

qcow

Old QEMU image format with support for backing files, compact image files,encryption and compression.

Supported options:

backing_file

File name of a base image (see create subcommand)

encryption

This option is deprecated and equivalent to encrypt.format=aes

encrypt.format

If this is set to aes, the image is encrypted with 128-bit AES-CBC.The encryption key is given by the encrypt.key-secret parameter.This encryption format is considered to be flawed by modern cryptographystandards, suffering from a number of design problems enumerated previouslyagainst the qcow2 image format.

The use of this is no longer supported in system emulators. Support onlyremains in the command line utilities, for the purposes of data liberationand interoperability with old versions of QEMU.

Users requiring native encryption should use the qcow2 formatinstead with encrypt.format=luks.

encrypt.key-secret

Provides the ID of a secret object that contains the encryptionkey (encrypt.format=aes).

luks

LUKS v1 encryption format, compatible with Linux dm-crypt/cryptsetup

Supported options:

key-secret

Provides the ID of a secret object that contains the passphrase.

cipher-alg

Name of the cipher algorithm and key length. Currently defaultsto aes-256.

cipher-mode

Name of the encryption mode to use. Currently defaults to xts.

ivgen-alg

Name of the initialization vector generator algorithm. Currently defaultsto plain64.

ivgen-hash-alg

Name of the hash algorithm to use with the initialization vector generator(if required). Defaults to sha256.

hash-alg

Name of the hash algorithm to use for PBKDF algorithmDefaults to sha256.

iter-time

Amount of time, in milliseconds, to use for PBKDF algorithm per key slot.Defaults to 2000.

vdi

VirtualBox 1.1 compatible image format.

Supported options:

static

If this option is set to on, the image is created with metadatapreallocation.

vmdk

VMware 3 and 4 compatible image format.

Supported options:

backing_file

File name of a base image (see create subcommand).

compat6

Create a VMDK version 6 image (instead of version 4)

hwversion

Specify vmdk virtual hardware version. Compat6 flag cannot be enabledif hwversion is specified.

subformat

Specifies which VMDK subformat to use. Valid options aremonolithicSparse (default),monolithicFlat,twoGbMaxExtentSparse,twoGbMaxExtentFlat andstreamOptimized.

vpc

VirtualPC compatible image format (VHD).

Supported options:

subformat

Specifies which VHD subformat to use. Valid options aredynamic (default) and fixed.

VHDX

Hyper-V compatible image format (VHDX).

Supported options:

subformat

Specifies which VHDX subformat to use. Valid options aredynamic (default) and fixed.

block_state_zero

Force use of payload blocks of type ‘ZERO’. Can be set to on (default)or off. When set to off, new blocks will be created asPAYLOAD_BLOCK_NOT_PRESENT, which means parsers are free to returnarbitrary data for those blocks. Do not set to off when usingqemu-imgconvert with subformat=dynamic.

block_size

Block size; min 1 MB, max 256 MB. 0 means auto-calculate based onimage size.

log_size

Log size; min 1 MB.

Read-only formats¶

More disk image file formats are supported in a read-only mode.

bochs

Convert Raw Disk Image To Dmg File

Bochs images of growing type.

cloop

Linux Compressed Loop image, useful only to reuse directly compressedCD-ROM images present for example in the Knoppix CD-ROMs.

dmg

Apple disk image.

parallels

Parallels disk image format.

Using host drives¶

In addition to disk image files, QEMU can directly access hostdevices. We describe here the usage for QEMU version >= 0.8.3.

Linux¶

On Linux, you can directly use the host device filename instead of adisk image filename provided you have enough privileges to accessit. For example, use /dev/cdrom to access to the CDROM.

CD
You can specify a CDROM device even if no CDROM is loaded. QEMU hasspecific code to detect CDROM insertion or removal. CDROM ejection bythe guest OS is supported. Currently only data CDs are supported.
Floppy
You can specify a floppy device even if no floppy is loaded. Floppyremoval is currently not detected accurately (if you change floppywithout doing floppy access while the floppy is not loaded, the guestOS will think that the same floppy is loaded).Use of the host’s floppy device is deprecated, and support for it willbe removed in a future release.
Hard disks
Hard disks can be used. Normally you must specify the whole disk(/dev/hdb instead of /dev/hdb1) so that the guest OS cansee it as a partitioned disk. WARNING: unless you know what you do, itis better to only make READ-ONLY accesses to the hard disk otherwiseyou may corrupt your host data (use the -snapshot commandline option or modify the device permissions accordingly).

Windows¶

CD

The preferred syntax is the drive letter (e.g. d:). Thealternate syntax .d: is supported. /dev/cdrom issupported as an alias to the first CDROM drive.

Currently there is no specific code to handle removable media, so itis better to use the change or eject monitor commands tochange or eject media.

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Hard disks

Hard disks can be used with the syntax: .PhysicalDriveNwhere N is the drive number (0 is the first hard disk).

WARNING: unless you know what you do, it is better to only makeREAD-ONLY accesses to the hard disk otherwise you may corrupt yourhost data (use the -snapshot command line so that themodifications are written in a temporary file).

Mac OS X¶

/dev/cdrom is an alias to the first CDROM.

Currently there is no specific code to handle removable media, so itis better to use the change or eject monitor commands tochange or eject media.

Virtual FAT disk images¶

QEMU can automatically create a virtual FAT disk image from adirectory tree. In order to use it, just type:

Then you access access to all the files in the /my_directorydirectory without having to copy them in a disk image or to exportthem via SAMBA or NFS. The default access is read-only.

Floppies can be emulated with the :floppy: option:

A read/write support is available for testing (beta stage) with the:rw: option:

What you should never do:

  • use non-ASCII filenames
  • use “-snapshot” together with “:rw:”
  • expect it to work when loadvm’ing
  • write to the FAT directory on the host system while accessing it with the guest system

NBD access¶

QEMU can access directly to block device exported using the Network Block Deviceprotocol.

If the NBD server is located on the same host, you can use an unix socket insteadof an inet socket:

In this case, the block device must be exported using qemu-nbd:

The use of qemu-nbd allows sharing of a disk between several guests:

and then you can use it with two guests:

If the nbd-server uses named exports (supported since NBD 2.9.18, or with QEMU’sown embedded NBD server), you must specify an export name in the URI:

The URI syntax for NBD is supported since QEMU 1.3. An alternative syntax isalso available. Here are some example of the older syntax:

Sheepdog disk images¶

Sheepdog is a distributed storage system for QEMU. It provides highlyavailable block level storage volumes that can be attached toQEMU-based virtual machines.

You can create a Sheepdog disk image with the command:

where IMAGE is the Sheepdog image name and SIZE is itssize.

To import the existing FILENAME to Sheepdog, you can use aconvert command.

You can boot from the Sheepdog disk image with the command:

You can also create a snapshot of the Sheepdog image like qcow2.

where TAG is a tag name of the newly created snapshot.

To boot from the Sheepdog snapshot, specify the tag name of thesnapshot.

You can create a cloned image from the existing snapshot.

where BASE is an image name of the source snapshot and TAGis its tag name.

You can use an unix socket instead of an inet socket:

If the Sheepdog daemon doesn’t run on the local host, you need tospecify one of the Sheepdog servers to connect to.

iSCSI LUNs¶

iSCSI is a popular protocol used to access SCSI devices across a computernetwork.

There are two different ways iSCSI devices can be used by QEMU.

The first method is to mount the iSCSI LUN on the host, and make it appear asany other ordinary SCSI device on the host and then to access this device as a/dev/sd device from QEMU. How to do this differs between host OSes.

The second method involves using the iSCSI initiator that is built intoQEMU. This provides a mechanism that works the same way regardless of whichhost OS you are running QEMU on. This section will describe this second methodof using iSCSI together with QEMU.

In QEMU, iSCSI devices are described using special iSCSI URLs. URL syntax:

Username and password are optional and only used if your target is set upusing CHAP authentication for access control.Alternatively the username and password can also be set via environmentvariables to have these not show up in the process list:

Various session related parameters can be set via special options, eitherin a configuration file provided via ‘-readconfig’ or directly on thecommand line.

If the initiator-name is not specified qemu will use a default nameof ‘iqn.2008-11.org.linux-kvm[:<uuid>’] where <uuid> is the UUID of thevirtual machine. If the UUID is not specified qemu will use‘iqn.2008-11.org.linux-kvm[:<name>’] where <name> is the name of thevirtual machine.

Setting a specific initiator name to use when logging in to the target:

Controlling which type of header digest to negotiate with the target:

These can also be set via a configuration file:

Setting the target name allows different options for different targets:

How to use a configuration file to set iSCSI configuration options:

How to set up a simple iSCSI target on loopback and access it via QEMU:this example shows how to set up an iSCSI target with one CDROM and one DISKusing the Linux STGT software target. This target is available on Red Hat basedsystems as the package ‘scsi-target-utils’.

GlusterFS disk images¶

GlusterFS is a user space distributed file system.

You can boot from the GlusterFS disk image with the command:

URI:

JSON:

gluster is the protocol.

TYPE specifies the transport type used to connect to glustermanagement daemon (glusterd). Valid transport types aretcp and unix. In the URI form, if a transport type isn’t specified,then tcp type is assumed.

HOST specifies the server where the volume file specification forthe given volume resides. This can be either a hostname or an ipv4 address.If transport type is unix, then HOST field should not be specified.Instead socket field needs to be populated with the path to unix domainsocket.

PORT is the port number on which glusterd is listening. This is optionaland if not specified, it defaults to port 24007. If the transport type is unix,then PORT should not be specified.

Convert raw disk image to dmg file

VOLUME is the name of the gluster volume which contains the disk image.

PATH is the path to the actual disk image that resides on gluster volume.

debug is the logging level of the gluster protocol driver. Debug levelsare 0-9, with 9 being the most verbose, and 0 representing no debugging output.The default level is 4. The current logging levels defined in the gluster sourceare 0 - None, 1 - Emergency, 2 - Alert, 3 - Critical, 4 - Error, 5 - Warning,6 - Notice, 7 - Info, 8 - Debug, 9 - Trace

logfile is a commandline option to mention log file path which helps inlogging to the specified file and also help in persisting the gfapi logs. Thedefault is stderr.

You can create a GlusterFS disk image with the command:

Examples

Secure Shell (ssh) disk images¶

You can access disk images located on a remote ssh serverby using the ssh protocol:

Alternative syntax using properties:

ssh is the protocol.

USER is the remote user. If not specified, then the localusername is tried.

SERVER specifies the remote ssh server. Any ssh server can beused, but it must implement the sftp-server protocol. Most Unix/Linuxsystems should work without requiring any extra configuration.

PORT is the port number on which sshd is listening. By defaultthe standard ssh port (22) is used.

PATH is the path to the disk image.

The optional HOST_KEY_CHECK parameter controls how the remotehost’s key is checked. The default is yes which means to usethe local .ssh/known_hosts file. Setting this to noturns off known-hosts checking. Or you can check that the host keymatches a specific fingerprint:host_key_check=md5:78:45:8e:14:57:4f:d5:45:83:0a:0e:f3:49:82:c9:c8(sha1: can also be used as a prefix, but note that OpenSSHtools only use MD5 to print fingerprints).

Currently authentication must be done using ssh-agent. Otherauthentication methods may be supported in future.

Note: Many ssh servers do not support an fsync-style operation.The ssh driver cannot guarantee that disk flush requests areobeyed, and this causes a risk of disk corruption if the remoteserver or network goes down during writes. The driver willprint a warning when fsync is not supported:

With sufficiently new versions of libssh and OpenSSH, fsync issupported.

NVMe disk images¶

NVM Express (NVMe) storage controllers can be accessed directly by a userspacedriver in QEMU. This bypasses the host kernel file system and block layerswhile retaining QEMU block layer functionalities, such as block jobs, I/Othrottling, image formats, etc. Disk I/O performance is typically higher thanwith -drivefile=/dev/sda using either thread pool or linux-aio.

The controller will be exclusively used by the QEMU process once started. To beable to share storage between multiple VMs and other applications on the host,please use the file based protocols.

Before starting QEMU, bind the host NVMe controller to the host vfio-pcidriver. For example:

Alternative syntax using properties:

Disk

HOST:BUS:SLOT.FUNC is the NVMe controller’s PCI deviceaddress on the host.

NAMESPACE is the NVMe namespace number, starting from 1.

Disk image file locking¶

By default, QEMU tries to protect image files from unexpected concurrentaccess, as long as it’s supported by the block protocol driver and hostoperating system. If multiple QEMU processes (including QEMU emulators andutilities) try to open the same image with conflicting accessing modes, all butthe first one will get an error.

Toyota mark x user manual pdf english. This feature is currently supported by the file protocol on Linux with the OpenFile Descriptor (OFD) locking API, and can be configured to fall back to POSIXlocking if the POSIX host doesn’t support Linux OFD locking.

To explicitly enable image locking, specify “locking=on” in the file protocoldriver options. If OFD locking is not possible, a warning will be printed andthe POSIX locking API will be used. In this case there is a risk that the lockwill get silently lost when doing hot plugging and block jobs, due to theshortcomings of the POSIX locking API.

QEMU transparently handles lock handover during shared storage migration. Forshared virtual disk images between multiple VMs, the “share-rw” device optionshould be used.

By default, the guest has exclusive write access to its disk image. If theguest can safely share the disk image with other writers the-device..,share-rw=on parameter can be used. This is only safe ifthe guest is running software, such as a cluster file system, thatcoordinates disk accesses to avoid corruption.

Note that share-rw=on only declares the guest’s ability to share the disk.Some QEMU features, such as image file formats, require exclusive write accessto the disk image and this is unaffected by the share-rw=on option.

Alternatively, locking can be fully disabled by “locking=off” block deviceoption. In the command line, the option is usually in the form of“file.locking=off” as the protocol driver is normally placed as a “file” childunder a format driver. For example:

To check if image locking is active, check the output of the “lslocks” commandon host and see if there are locks held by the QEMU process on the image file.More than one byte could be locked by the QEMU instance, each byte of whichreflects a particular permission that is acquired or protected by the runningblock driver.

Filter drivers¶

QEMU supports several filter drivers, which don’t store any data, but performsome additional tasks, hooking io requests.

preallocate

The preallocate filter driver is intended to be inserted between formatand protocol nodes and preallocates some additional space(expanding the protocol file) when writing past the file’s end. This can beuseful for file-systems with slow allocation.

Supported options:

prealloc-align

On preallocation, align the file length to this value (in bytes), default 1M.

prealloc-size

How much to preallocate (in bytes), default 128M.